Thursday, April 14, 2011

Test Ideas: Condition thermocouples before digitizing

Use a circuit to produce a voltage proportional to temperature.
Moshe Gerstenhaber and Michael O’Sullivan, Analog Devices -- Test & Measurement World, 4/1/2011 12:01:00 AM
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Thermocouples are rugged, low-cost temperature transducers whose wide temperature range and fast response time make them ideal for applications as diverse as cryogenics, jet-engine-exhaust analysis, and food production. By using the proper signal conditioning, you can connect a thermocouple to a measurement instrument such as a voltmeter to get a voltage proportional to temperature. With a few components, you can build your own signal-conditioning circuit and adapt that circuit to any thermocouple.


A thermocouple consists of wires made from two dissimilar metals that are connected at one point to form the measurement (hot) junction and are connected at a second point to create the reference (cold) junction (Figure 1). The ends of the thermocouple connect to metal traces that lead to the measurement electronics.

April 2011 Test Ideas, Figure 1

Figure 1. A voltmeter can measure the voltage difference between a measurement junction and a reference junction.

The output voltage of the thermocouple is proportional to the difference in temperature between the two junctions. To measure temperature at the measurement junction, you must know the temperature of the reference junction. You can put the reference junction in an ice-water mixture, which has a temperature of 0°C, hence the name "cold junction."

Maintaining the ice-water reference junction can be inconvenient, but fortunately, you don't have to keep the reference-junction temperature at 0°C; it can fluctuate as long as you know what the temperature is and compensate for it. If you use a temperature sensor to measure the reference-junction temperature, you can compensate for the difference between 0°C and the reference temperature in hardware. Or, if you digitize the thermocouple voltage, you can compensate for the difference in software. Figure 2 shows how to connect a reference junction to a measurement system. This compensation is often referred to as CJC (cold-junction compensation).

April 2011 Test Ideas, Figure 2

Figure 2. A temperature sensor measures the reference-junction temperature, and the compensation circuit accounts for differences between the reference temperature and 0°C.

Thermocouples can be made from many different material pairs, with each pair behaving differently over temperature. Thermocouple reference tables, available from many sources, provide voltage-versus-temperature data. These tables are based on a standard reference-junction temperature of 0°C. Thus, if you know the reference-junction temperature of your system, you can find the difference between that and the measured temperature and compensate accordingly. For example, a type J thermocouple produces a voltage of about 52 µV/°C, a type K produces a voltage of 41 µV/°C, and a type N produces a voltage of 26 µV/°C when their respective reference junctions are at 0°C and their measurement junctions are at 25°C.

Each thermocouple type drifts differently, so each requires different CJC. Thermocouple signal conditioners that let you connect multiple thermocouple types produce the CJC factor for each thermocouple type. You can use the circuit in Figure 3 to correct for different thermocouple types. It uses an AD8494 precision thermocouple amplifier, an AD8227 instrumentation amplifier, two ADG70x multiplexers, and a few resistors to produce a compensated voltage large enough to digitize.


April 2011 Test Ideas, Figure 3


Figure 3. This circuit produces an output voltage based on the measurement junction, and it compensates for the temperature of the reference junction. You can then digitize the output voltage and convert it to temperature units.

When the AD8494 inputs are connected to ground, the amplifier operates as a thermometer with an output voltage of 5 mV/°C. With a resistive divider connected to the output, any desired output drift can be obtained. Low-cost 1% resistors provide sufficient accuracy for most applications. Multiple parallel dividers enable CJC for multiple thermocouple types. The appropriate compensation signal is selected by the ADG704 multiplexer. This signal is buffered by an AD8538 to preserve the common-mode rejection of the AD8227 instrumentation amplifier. The buffered signal is then connected to the reference pin of the AD8227 to provide CJC for the thermocouple. The resistors used for the dividers should be large enough (several kilohms) to limit the output current from the AD8494, keeping it cool and minimizing errors in the CJC.

The ADG709 multiplexer allows different thermocouples to be connected to the AD8227 instrumentation amplifier. The 1-MΩ resistor on the AD8227 input provides a DC bias path for the AD8227 bias currents and acts as an open lead detector. If no thermocouple is connected, the bias current has nowhere to flow, so the output of the AD8227 will go to the positive rail. When used in a control system, the open-circuit voltage simulates a high temperature, which you can use to shut down the heating elements.

The AD8227 amplifies the thermocouple voltage to any desired value (mV/°C). With a gain of 96 as shown, the type J, type K, and type N output voltages will be approximately 5 mV/°C, 4 mV/°C, and 2.5 mV/°C, respectively, at a measurement junction temperature of 25°C. The instrumentation amplifier's high input impedance lets you place filters on the inputs to suppress RF interference and high-frequency common-mode voltage that long thermocouple leads can pick up. The AD8227's common-mode rejection can further suppress unwanted common-mode noise. You must place the AD8494 close to the thermocouple reference junctions so it can accurately measure the reference-junction temperature.

Friday, May 14, 2010

[ Live Inmarsat BGAN Demonstration] Satellite Dish
Visit us at the SDR'09 Technical Conference and Product Exposition in December for a live demonstration of the Inmarsat Broadband Global Area Network (BGAN) software defined radio (SDR) Waveform. Visitors will be able to access the internet live via the Inmarsat satellite network using this technology.

Developed by Gatehouse Communications on Spectrum's SDR-4021 platform, this fully software defined waveform will allow commercial or military users to establish broadband satellite communication on the move, in the air or at sea, even in the most remote areas.

SDR '09 Technical Conference and Product Exposition
December 1-4, 2009 | Hyatt Regency Crystal City | Washington, DC

Find out more
» Press Release: http://cnrp.marketwire.com/client/spectrum/release.jsp?actionFor=1079175
» Inmarsat BGAN SDR Waveform: www.spectrumsignal.com/products/Waveforms/Inmarsat_BGAN.asp
» SDR'09 website: www.sdrforum.org
[ Software Defined Radio and Cognitive Radio in Satellite Communications]


Join us at SDR'09 to discuss the latest in software defined radio (SDR) technology, including how to enable flexible and on-demand use of satellite services.

In our presentation we will address the role of SDR and cognitive radio (CR) technology as it relates to the three primary elements of satellite communication (SATCOM) systems. We will also discuss near and long term implications of the development of advanced cognitive SATCOM systems.

To find out more about the presentation, contact sales@spectrumsignal.com.
[ High-Definition Video Encoding Solutions ]


Spectrum introduces the DM-1320, a compact video encoder capable of encoding up to two high-definition (HD) analog video inputs in real time to an MPEG-2 transport stream for transmission over IP. This cost-effective, compact solution can be used in a number of applications:
DM-1320 Video Encoder
» Internet Protocol Television (IPTV)
» Broadcasting
» Video over IP / Ethernet
» Multiple service operator (MSO) solutions
» Remote security monitoring
» Cable Business Services

The DM-1320 can be configured remotely using a web-based configuration utility. Built in a single 1RU 19" form-factor, the DM-1320 can encode the equivalent of two 720p video streams at 60 fps.

Tuesday, May 4, 2010

RX-400 HF/VHF/UHF DSP Receiver

TEN-TEC has expanded its line of DSP based receivers. Tuning from 2 MHz to 3 GHz, the 1 ms synthesizer lock time provides realistic scan rates of 100 channels/sec or faster. One outstanding benefit of the DSP architecture is more than 50 built-in filter bandwidths from 100 Hz to 300 kHz, most useable in any detection mode. Strong signal handling is assured with a typical in-band 3rd order intercept of -3 dBm. In addition to conventional AGC presets, RX-400 includes a programmable mode. This allows the customer to build their own unique AGC characteristics specifically for a mission. A 21.4 MHz wideband IF output is provided with 6 MHz of bandwidth. The RX-400 includes both an RS-232 interface and TCP/IP. Receiver is modestly sized for ½ rack installation. Options will include: a Digital Data output, Narrowband IF output and a POTS interface to allow customer to remote unit anywhere with access to nothing but a phone line (no PC required).



FREQUENCY COVERAGE: 2MHz - 3.0 GHz

MODE: USB, LSB, ISB, CW, AM, NFM, WFM

TUNING RESOLUTION: 1 Hz steps. (10 kHz steps at WB-IF output)

OPERATING TEMPERATURE RANGE: 0 - 50 degrees C @ full specification. -10 to 60 degrees C with degraded performance.

FREQUENCY STABILITY: Standard TCXO: below 30 MHz +/- 20 Hz, above 30 MHz +/- 0.5ppm

ACCURACY: All internal oscillators are locked to either internal or external frequency standard.

EXTERNAL FREQUENCY REFERENCE: 1, 2, 5 or 10 MHz. Receiver automatically switches to this reference upon application, at power up or after any control interface activity.

SPURIOUS RESPONSES: all spurious to be less than -105 dBm equivalent input max. with approx. 6 less than -80 dBm

IMAGE REJECTION: 80 dB typical 2-3000 MHz

IF REJECTION: 80 dB typical 2-3000 MHz

BFO: Tunable in CW mode only, +/- 8 kHz. Tuning in 10 Hz steps. Fixed frequency in SSB, disabled in AM and FM.

MEMORIES: 1000

SCAN RATE: 100 channels/sec or faster

SYNTHESIZER LOCK TIME: approx. 1ms

SQUELCH: adjustable 0-127 dB

SELECTIVITY: selection is mode independent. Approx. 50 filter bandwidths with 8-10 chosen appropriately for each of the 5 modes. Shape factor 1.5:1 or better. (6 to 60 dB).

Examples, useful for: CW-100,150,200,250,300, 400, 500, 600, 700, 800, 1000 Hz SSB-1.5, 1.6, 1.7, 1.8, 1.9, 2.0, 2.2, 2.4, 2.6, 3.0, 3.4 kHz AM- 4.0, 5.0, 6.0, 7.0, 8.0, 9.6, 10.4, 12.0, 13.6, 15.2,16kHz WFM-100,120,140,150,160,180, 200, 250, 300 kHz

INBAND RIPPLE: 2-3 dB, referenced to IF output

SENSITIVITY:
Mode BW dBm
(for 12 dB NF)
SSB 10 db S/N 3 kHz -117
AM (50% mod) "" 6.0 kHz -108
FM-N @ 6 kHz dev 16 dB SINAD 15 kHz -107
FM-W @ 10-20 kHz dev "" 30-50 kHz -102
FM-W @ 75kHz dev "" 200 kHz -96

DYNAMIC RANGE: in-band

Freq. NF (dB) IP3 (dBm)
Typ Max Typ Min
2 MHz - 88 MHz 12 15 -2 -5
89 MHz - 1650 MHz 13 16 -3 -6
1651 MHz - 3 GHz 14 17 -3 -6

2nd ORDER INTERCEPT: 50 dBm minimum



AGC: Fast, Medium, Slow, Programmable. Manual gain setting is provided in all four modes, adjustable over 120 dB range. DUMP feature provided in all modes.
Mode Attack(dB/ms) Hang(sec) Decay(dB/sec)
Fast 0.8 0 1200
Medium 0.8 0 100
Slow 0.8 0 25
Prog. 0.01-1.0 0.01-99.9 0.01-99.9

WIDEBAND IF OUTPUT, ANALOG: 21.4 MHz center frequency, fixed gain, 6 MHz bandwidth, 10 kHz tuning steps. 2 MHz bandwidth if receiver tuned below 20 MHz.

S-METER: reports signal level in dBm to host upon request

OPTIONS: (only one may be installed)

* DIGITAL DATA OUTPUT: 23 bit, I&Q, serial. Baseband representation of NB-IF output
* NARROWBAND IF OUTPUT: 21.4 MHz center frequency, bandwidth determined by filter selection, delayed AGC

CONTROL INTERFACE: built-in MULTI-DROP RS-232 (DB9 connector) and TCP/IP

Optional: POTS - allows customer to remote unit anywhere with access to nothing but a phone line. No PC required.

FIRMWARE: can be updated remotely in Flash ROM

ANTENNA INPUT: 50 ohm, unbalanced, SMA connector. 2.5:1 VSWR max @ receiver's tuned frequency.

RF INPUT PROTECTION: accepts +20 dBm w/o damage

AUDIO LINE OUTPUT: 0 dBm (+/- 3 dBm) 600 ohm outputs. Terminals may be grounded or shorted together without damage. One AC coupled, one DC coupled

HEADPHONE OUTPUT: both 1/4" and 1/8" stereo phone jacks. 10 mw maximum into 600 ohms. Front panel volume control.

POWER REQUIREMENTS: 90-264 VAC, 48-440 Hz @ 36 watts typical, 0.6 PF @ 120VAC, 60 Hz. Removable six foot line cord included.

* OPTION: substitute 11-28 VDC supply at additional cost

DIMENSIONS: 7.5"W x 17"D x 3.5"H. Without knobs and fan. Rack mountable with optional bracket kits for either half rack or full rack widths.

WEIGHT: 10.25 lbs. (4.65 kg)

MTTR: less than 30 minutes for replacement of any of 9 major subassemblies.

ADDITIONAL FEATURES:

BITE: Built-in self test capability will identify virtually all faults to the board level.

Mute: for use in transmit/receive applications, mutes audio and IF outputs.

Friday, April 30, 2010

Monday, April 19, 2010

Types of test equipment

[edit] Basic equipment

Agilent commercial digital voltmeter checking a prototype
The following items are used for basic measurement of voltages, currents, and components in the circuit under test.
The following are used for stimulus of the circuit under test:
Howard piA digital multimeter
The following analyze the response of the circuit under test:
And connecting it all together:

[edit] Advanced or less commonly used equipment

Meters

[edit] Probes

A multimeter with a built in clampfacility. Pushing the large button at the bottom opens the lower jaw of the clamp, allowing the clamp to be placed around a conductor (wire).

[edit] Analyzers

[edit] Signal-generating devices

Leader Instruments LSG-15 signal generator.

[edit] Miscellaneous devices

Tag :

Friday, April 16, 2010

Automatic test equipment

Automatic or automated test equipment (ATE) is any apparatus used to perform tests on a device (known as the device under test), using automation to perform the tests or to evaluate the test results, or both. An ATE can be as simple as a digital multimeter whose operating mode and measurements are controlled and analyzed by a computer, or as complex as a system containing dozens of complex test instruments capable of automatically testing and diagnosing faults in complex electronic systems, such as very sophisticated flying-probe testers.
Nowadays, ATE devices are essentially always controlled by computers although in the past, custom-designed controllers or even relay controls were used.

ATE in the semiconductors industry

Semiconductor ATE, so named for testing semiconductor devices, can test a wide range of electronic devices and systems, from simple components (resistors, capacitors, and inductors) to integrated circuits (ICs), printed circuit boards (PCBs), and complex, completely-assembled electronic systems.
Semiconductor ATEs, as used today, comprise instruments that use Digital Signal Processing (DSP) to measure a wide range of parameters. For example, assume we have to measure a voltage at the lead of a semiconductor device; the instruments in the ATE sample the voltage in the device and send it to a computer. The computer then process the signal and return the value.
This example shows that conventional instruments like a moving iron or coil may not be used in many ATEs. There are several advantages of Digital Signal Processing to measure the parameters. One of them is time. For example, if we have to calculate the peak of a signal and other parameters of the signal, then we have to employ a peak detector as well as other individual instruments to test individual parameters. But if the DSP-based instruments are used then all we have to do is sample the signal and calculate many of these parameters internally. That way we save time.
A Semiconductor ATE consists of several instruments; among them are Digital Power Supply (DPS), Parametric Measurement Unit (PMU), Arbitrary Waveform Generators (AWG), Digitizer, Digital IOs, utility supply. Each of these instruments performs different measurements. All of these instruments have to be synchronized together for a variety of reasons, one of which is that it would enable them to source and capture waveforms very precisely — a basic requirement in DSP-based ATE.
The Semiconductor ATE architecture in general consists of master controller which synchronizes several other instruments which are listed above. All the semiconductor devices in general have to be tested, after being fabricated. Because even if small number of defective devices end up with consumer, the manufacturers loss would be high.
But testing the device for all the parameter may or may not be required depending on the device functionality and end user. For example if the device finds application in medical or life saving products then many of its parameter may have to be tested, some of the parameter have to be guaranteed. But deciding on the parameters to tested is a complex decision, if the device is a complex digital device, with thousands of gates, then test fault coverage have to be calculated.
Here again the decision is complex based on test economics, again that is based on frequency, number of IOs in the device and end application.
Semiconductor ATE and ATE in general consists of source and capture instruments synchronized together, this arrangement to synchronize is essential. The DSP-based signal generation would require number of sample patterns to be calculated and be sent.
ATE is widely used in the electronic manufacturing industry to test electronics components and systems after they are fabricated. ATE is also used to test avionics. ATE systems are also used to test the electronic modules in today’s automobiles.
ATE systems typically interface with an automated placement tool, called a "handler", that physically places the device under test so that it can be measured by the equipment. There may also be an Interface Test Adapter (ITA), a device just making electronic connections between the ATE and the Unit Under Test (UUT), but also it might contain additional circuitry to adapt signals between the ATE and the UUT and has physical facilities to mount the UUT.
The computer of the ATE is programmed with common computer languages with additional statements to control the ATE equipment. Also some dedicated computer languages exists like Abbreviated Test Language for All Systems (ATLAS).
Over the past four decades, ATE has grown from specialized systems for electronics test applications to a wide range of applications in all facets of the electronics industry.
Many ATE platforms used in the semiconductor industry output data using Standard Test Data Format (STDF) and perform multi-site test.

ATE diagnostics

Automatic test equipment diagnostics is the part of an ATE test that determines the faulty components. ATE tests perform two basic functions. The first is to test whether or not the unit under test is working correctly. The second is when the unit under test is not working correctly, to diagnose the reason. The diagnostic portion can be the most difficult and costly portion of the test. It is typical for ATE to reduce a failure to a cluster or ambiguity group of components. One method to help reduce these ambiguity groups is the addition of analog signature analysis testing to the ATE system. Diagnotics are often aided by the use of flying probe testing.

Tag :

Types of test equipment

Basic equipment

Agilent commercial digital voltmeter checking a prototype
The following items are used for basic measurement of voltages, currents, and components in the circuit under test.
The following are used for stimulus of the circuit under test:
Howard piA digital multimeter
The following analyze the response of the circuit under test:
And connecting it all together:

[edit] Advanced or less commonly used equipment

Meters

Probes

A multimeter with a built in clampfacility. Pushing the large button at the bottom opens the lower jaw of the clamp, allowing the clamp to be placed around a conductor (wire).

Analyzers

Signal-generating devices

Leader Instruments LSG-15 signal generator.

Miscellaneous devices


Tag :

Sunday, October 25, 2009

High Speed Data Radio with 433 to 915MHz Carrier Frequency and Transparent Data Interface

High Speed Data Radio ManufacturersKey Specifications/Special Features:
  • Features:
    • Carrier frequency: 433, 450, 670, 868 and 915MHz or ISM
    • Provide rich interface: standard RS-232, TTL and RS-485
    • 8CH, expandable for 16/32 channels according to requirements of customers
    • Baud rate: 1,200, 2,400, 4,800, 9,600, 1,9200 and 3,8400bps
    • Interface format: 8N1/8E1 user-defined or customization for other format interface
    • Integration of receiving, transmitting and half duplex
    • Low power consumption and sleep function
    • Temperature: -35 to +75°C
    • Impedance: 50Ω (SMA antenna port, multiple antenna options available)
    • Compatible with EN 300220 and ARIB STD-T67
  • Specifications:
    • RF power: 2W
    • Receiving current: <25mA
    • Transmitting current: <1.5A
    • Sleep current: <20μA
    • Power supply: 5V DC
    • Modulation: GFSK
    • Transmission distance: 5km (BER=10 to 3@9,600bps)
    • Size: 80 x 45 x 19mm (without antenna port)
  • Applications:
    • Automatic meter reading (AMR) and home automation
    • Supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA)
    • Remote control, industry data collection
    • Monitoring of remote systems
    • Production reporting of active systems
    • Wireless remote control alarm of power supply
    • Sports training and competition
    • Wireless POS, PAD wireless smart terminal
    • Electronic bus station and intelligent traffic
    • Point to multi-point wireless network and data collection system

High Speed Data Radio with 433 to 915MHz Carrier Frequency and Transparent Data Interface
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Thursday, October 22, 2009

Cable and Antenna Tester, 25 MHz to 4 GHz

Agilent Technologies - N9330A

  • Frequency range: 25 MHz to 4 GHz
  • iFrequency domain
    • Return loss vs. Frequency
    • VSWR vs. frequency
    • Cable loss test
  • Distance to Fault (DTF)
    • Return loss vs. distance
    • VSWR vs. distance
  • Sweep time: 3.0 ms/data point (full span, 521 trace point, CW sweep, typically)
  • Battery: Lithium-ion, 4 hours operating time
  • Support USB connectivity for memory stick and PC connection
  • 7.2" sunlight viewable LCD with 640 x 480 pixels
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Anritsu - CMA3000\

Portable all-in-one tester
  • Supports PDH (E1/E3) SDH (STM-1/4) Ethernet 10/100/1000 and V-series interfaces
  • Electrical and optical Interfaces, Frame relay
  • No Jitter or Wander measurements
  • A-bis and A-ter measurements
  • User friendly user interface. Communication through serial interface or ethernet.

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Accanto Systems - 3GMaster

  • Advanced protocol analysis for GSM, GPRS/EDGE, UMTS/HSPA, VoIP/IMS, CDMA2000/EVDO, SS7/HSL/Sigtran Networks
  • Multi-user: up to 8 users may access the results without interfering each others
  • Multi-test: up to 3 monitoring tests may run concurrently
  • Multi-protocol/interfaces: up to 8 different protocol stacks may be configured per test, even involving different physical interfaces
  • User friendly GUI; a configuration wizard guides the users during the configuration of the most difficult test (e.g. UMTS Iub, IuPS and IuCS monitoring)
  • For each available protocol, the 3GMaster offers:
    • Physical layer status and statistics
    • xDRs (CDRs, TDRs, IP-DRs) generation
    • Customizable Protocol Trace and xDRs
    • Arrowed diagrams for Trace and xDRs
    • Display Filters for Trace and xDR and text search filter
    • Statistics on all the main protocol events
    • Call/Transaction statistics
    • Disconnection Cause statistics
    • xDR-to-frames correlation
    • Frame-to-xDR function
    • xDR forwarding to external systems
  • All data can be saved in playback files and recovered for off-line post analysis where reports can be compared over time
  • Results exportable to several formats (HTML, TXT, XML) and into Microsoft{r} applications (Word, Excel, Access)
    As a portable test and troubleshooting tool, it monitors both signaling and network traffic while simultaneously supporting multiple users on different tiers. With support for E1, T1, Fast/Gigabit Ethernet, and OC-3/STM-1, 3GMaster is ideal for multi-protocol and multi-interface environments like GSM, GPRS/EDGE, UMTS/HSPA, VoIP/IMS and CDMA2000/EVDO. The 3GMaster is an ideal tool for operators delivering or migrating to 3G/3.5G mobile data services, as it offers an unparalleled toolset for diagnosing difficult network and equipment problems.

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Digital Radio Test Set GSM



  • Frequency Bands 880-915 MHz and 1.710-1.785 GHz
  • E-GSM, DCS1800 mobile standards
  • Transmit, Receive, Voice and Data Measurements
  • Stand Alone System
  • GPIB and RS-232 Interfaces
  • Available options:
    • 01 GSM900 Operation
    • 02 DCS1800 Operation
    • 10R Encryption
    • 52 E1 A-bis interface
    • 54 BOSS Enhanced measurement hardware
    • Manufacturer specific software version
    • 310 BOSS Software
    • Please contact Livingston for configuration
  • Digital Radio BTS Test Set with Encryption
  • Easy to use. fully integrated test set which is optimised for the maintenance and servicing of GSM mobile telephones
  • Features include automatic and manual receiver and transmitter signalling tests with integral modulation analyser for alignment and diagnostics
  • Fast measurements and integrated test sequences with results displayed on a large bright LCD display showing graphics and numerics


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Analog and Digital Radio Test Set

Aeroflex - 3920

Analog and Digital Radio Test Set
  • TETRA Mobile, Base Station and DMO tests
  • P25 parametric analysis
  • HPD© (High Performance Data)
  • Spectrum analyzer with tracking generator
  • GPIB, Ethernet, USB and RS-232 Interfaces
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Rubidium Frequency Counter 300MHz

Fluke - PM6685R

  • Frequency Range 10 Hz to 300 MHz
  • 10 digit display resolution
  • Ageing 2 x 10-10 per year
  • GPIB
    ul>
  • Available options:
    • 070 Rubidium Timebase
    • 001 No battery or GPIB Interface
    • 006 GPIB
    • Please contact your local Livingston office for configuration

  • Rubidium reference (4 x 10-10 within 10 min)
  • Smart AUTO trigger eliminates guesswork. provides error-free measurements
  • Analogue Bar Graph displays signal strength and input sensitivity to assist instrument setup and RF tuning
  • IEE Interface for programming and data download
  • Software functions
    • Nulling permits the use of any value as input reference
    • Digit blanking eliminates distracting or insignificant digits
    • Connect-and-go convenience for testbench and field use

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Universal Counter 225 MHz

Agilent Technologies - 53131A

  • Frequency Range DC to 225 MHz
  • 10 digit display resolution
  • Stability 3 x 10-7 per year
  • GPIB
    • Measurements include
      • frequency.
      • frequency ratio.
      • time interval.
      • rise/fall time.
      • phase.
      • duty cycle.
      • positive/negative pulse width.
      • totalise.
      • peak voltage.
      • time interval average and time interval delay
    • Automated limit tests and one-button measurement setups for fast. easy operation
    • Two 225 MHz input channels.
    • Built-in statistics feature lets you simultaneously measure average. min/max. and standard deviation
    • 10 digits per second. 500 ps time interval res
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Microwave Frequency/Power Meter (10MHz - 20GHz/1nW - 25W Sensor Dependent)

Aeroflex - CPM20

  • A Counter and Power Meter in one instrument with one user interface
  • Frequency range : 10MHz - 20GHz
  • Portable and lightweight. Weighs only 4.9Kg including battery
  • Compatible with 6910, 6920 and 6930 series Power Sensors.
  • RS-232 interface
  • Also available in 46GHz version (CPM46)
  • Frequency counter incorporates a DTCXO removing warm-up period and the affects of cold
  • A large display ensures clear visibility in all light conditions
  • Built in digital voltmeter
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